Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


The beginning of a substantial federal government commitment to institution-based student financial aid as a matter of national policy dates from the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958. Growing out of the post-Sputnick concern that the United States was lagging behind the Soviet Union in technology, the NDEA established a number of federal programs designed to increase the number of college trained specialists, primarily in mathematics and science (Carnegie Council, 1975). The College Work Study Program, which originated with the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, served to promote part-time employment for students with financial need. The enactment of the Higher Education Act of 1965 marked the beginning of a broad-based comprehensive program of federal aid to students in higher education (Johnson, 1980). Through that legislation, Congress authorized Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL), Supplementary Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG), and the College Work Study Program (CWSP) to help financially needy students attend college (Gomez and Trevino-Martinz, 1980). The Basic Educational Opportunity Grant {BEOG) program, created by the Education Amendments of 1972, emphasized financial aid awards directly to students rather than to institutions. The next major piece of student financial aid legislation was the Middle Income Student Assistance Act {MISAA) of 1978, which provided relief to middle income families from the increasing cost of college attendance (Carnegie Council, 1979).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Thomas W. Hansmeier

Second Advisor

Jack F. Kimball


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Date Original


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