Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


The formal development of individualized instructional programs in America began as a reaction against the age-graded lock-step system in which all students were constrained to study the same materials, in the same way, for the same length of time. Arguments for breaking down uniformity of instruction gained support with the appearance of instruments for measuring human abilities. It became clear that students differ not only in intelligence but in creativity. It also became clear that great differences between competence and performance are possible, and that inequalities in intellect, physical ability and social behavior, great in childhood, increase as students move through the grades. In the 1960 1 s, pressure for change came from a variety of resources. Psychologists were beginning to characterize students as active learners, capable of creating and fulfilling their own learning needs. Criticisms of perceived quality of American schools also created pressure for changes in social organization and instruction.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of School Administration and Personnel Services

First Advisor

R. P. Brimm


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