Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Career paths and attitudes of school administrators have been fairly well documented over the last quarter of a century (Carlson, 1972; Hemphill, Griffiths & Frederikson, 1962; Barter, 1959). These studies have focused on men, since they dominate the field of school administration. The most recent nationwide data available (1972-73), from NEA's 26th Biennial Survey, show that men represented 80.4% of the elementary principals, 97.1% of the junior high school principals, 98.6% of all high school principals, and 99.9% of superintendents in the United States. The number of men in school administration has increased constantly from 1955 when men represented only 45% of the elementary school principals (Appendix I - Parris and Banks, 1979). The statistics for Iowa over a five year period from 1975-80 (Appendix II - DPI, 1980), show that the percentage of women administrators in Iowa is even less than the rest of the nation.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of School Administration and Personnel Services

First Advisor

Norman McCumsey


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