Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Reading--Remedial teaching; Reading promotion; Books and reading; Reading, Psychology of; Reading (Elementary); Reading disability; Motivation in education;


This literature review discusses the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation with regard to struggling readers. Intrinsic motivation is the drive inside a student to do an activity on their own. Extrinsic motivation is to do something in order to receive some sort of reward or praise. Teachers need to move from using extrinsic motivators to creating more intrinsic motivation within students. It is essential for teachers to understand the five guiding principles behind motivating students: building self-efficacy, activating schema, interest and relevance, using extrinsic reinforcers to engage, and making facilitative attributions. Understanding these principles provides teachers with strategies to improve intrinsic motivation of students. Teachers are best able to provide a motivational learning environment when they encompass the six conditions that foster engagement: knowledge goals, real-world interactions, abundance of interesting texts, autonomy support, direct strategy instruction, and collaboration. These six conditions help support intrinsic motivation within students. Classroom strategies for fostering intrinsic motivation are curriculum integration, project-based learning, and concept-oriented reading instruction (CORI). These strategies utilize real-world interactions supporting intrinsic motivation.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Lynn Ethan Nielsen


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (32 pages)



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