Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Adult education--Study and teaching; Adult students;


The unique learning needs of adults are important. Adult education as identified by the literature is a change of knowledge, attitude, or skill of an individual that performs ,, social roles assigned to the adult population. This literature review addresses the question: (a) who is the adult learner? (b) What are the learning needs of adult learners? (c) What are effective strategies for teaching adult learners?

The adult learner is not fully understood without examining education, andragogy and pedagogy, instructional strategies, motivation, and barriers to learning in adults. This area of research is important to the development of effective adult instruction. A well-designed instructional environment is made richer with the experiences adults bring to the environment. Reflection, support, collaboration, cooperation, creativity, and authentic experiences should also be a part of the adult learning process and strategy. Barriers to adults learning can include money, commitment with family and professional life, courses offered, location, attitude and self-concept.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

J. Ana Donaldson


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (iv, 28 pages)



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