Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


For years psychological literature has included cases and treatment implications for individuals affected by emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Most recently, ritual abuse, a rather new topic in the mental health arena, has emerged, but unfortunately seems to be a problem that has been in existence a very long time. Some have said ritual abuse started with satanic worship dated as far back as 610 A.D. in Southeastern Europe (Daniels, 1989). Others disagreed, saying this form of worship did not appear until the Christian church was established (Kahaner, 1988), and that in the 19th century a new spiritualistic movement began including mysticism and ancient witchcraft which ultimately became modern day Satanism. Not surprisingly, many have denied the existence of Satanic worship and ritual abuse entirely.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Robert T. Lembke


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