Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Phonics is being taught in many kindergartens and .most first grades in the nation to introduce children to reading and writing. A large number of educators believe that phonics instruction is necessary for children to learn to read and to spell, but many psycholinguists question the value of this instruction (M. Manning, G. Manning, & C. Kamii, 1988). The teaching of phonics has been a source of controversy since Rudolf Flesch's (1955) book, Why Johnny Can't Read. Chall (1967) addressed the debate in her book, Learning to Read: The Great Debate, concluding that a code-emphasis approach produced better reading achievement than a meaning-emphasis one. Since the publication of Chall's book, there has been a movement towards greater code-emphasis approaches in beginning reading until the popularity of whole language approach that has been building over the last ten years and continues today.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Charles R. May

Second Advisor

Marvin Heller


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Date Original


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