Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


This review of the literature looks at the motivating factors for the academic success and failure for the African American adolescent male. The questions which are addressed in this review are: 1. Are there multiple levels of self-esteem? 2. Is there a correlation between ·self-esteem and motivation for academic achievement? 3. What effect does the school and its environment have on academic success? 4. What impact does the African American family have on the success of young adolescent males? Suggestions based on the findings are that as middle schools restructure they will need to focus on the academic and social needs of the African American adolescent male and all children of color. New strategies must be developed to raise academic self-esteem, cultural pride, and to provide a greater sense of school membership through parent/community involvement. When looking at the needs of the African American adolescent male or any student at risk, the restructured middle school must focus on the development and implementation of the following programs: African American male mentoring; the recruitment of "look like me" educators; celebration of diversity in the classroom; relevant curriculum with alternative assessment; staff development; parent/teacher communication network; and the community as a partner in education.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction


Division of Middle School/Junior High School Education

First Advisor

Donna Schumacher

Second Advisor

Marvin Heller


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Date Original


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1 PDF file (40 leaves)



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