Open Access Graduate Research Paper
As the cry of accountability gets louder and the number of available teachers gets smaller, the need for instructional improvement among practicing teachers becomes greater. Stiggins and Bridgeford (1985) suggested that effective teacher evaluation was one way to reach the goal of quality instruction. Even though evaluation could serve as a tool for instructional improvement, most evaluating today addresses summative goals. As Stiggins and Bridgeford (1985) stated, summative evaluations provided a base for administrative decisions on hiring and firing, promotions and tenure, assignments and salary. According to these authors, this was because summative evaluations were less time consuming than formative evaluations.
Year of Submission
Master of Arts in Education
Department of Educational Administration and Counseling
Robert H. Decker
1 PDF file (25 leaves)
©1986 Norma Newhouse
Newhouse, Norma J., "Formative evaluation for instructional improvement" (1986). Graduate Research Papers. 3036.