Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Sex differences in the amount of emotional intimacy allowed appears to be a topic of frequent comparison (Allen & Haccoun, 1976; Balswick & Avertt, 1977; Fuller, 1963; Highlen & Johnston, 1979; Janofsky, 1971; Jourard & Lasakow, 1958; Levinger & Senn, 1967; Morgan, 1976; O'Neill, Fein, Velit & Frank, 1976). Balswick and Avertt (1977) stated that "expressiveness of certain emotions is often mentioned, as a characteristic which distinguishes males from females" (p. 121). Rubin (1985) reported that, from an early age, boys are socialized differently from girls. Boys are raised to be tough, active, independent, and emotionally controlled, while girls are taught to be tender, passive, dependent, and emotionally available. In addition, boys suppress their tears, even when physically hurt, while girls let their feelings out when in physical or emotional pain.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Audrey L. Smith


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