Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


African-Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the United States (Ruiz, 1990). The United States Bureau of Census reported 30.8 million African-Americans lived in this country in 1992 (Paniagua, 1994). The United States Bureau of Census projected that 37 million African-Americans will be residing in this country by the year 2000 (Atkinson, Morton, & Sue, 1993). With this growing population of African-Americans comes the likelihood of counselors and therapists becoming more involved in counseling this population. 1 Mental health professionals can become better prepared to counsel African-Americans by becoming aware of such factors as the historical and cultural influence of African values on African-American families, gender role socialization of African-Americans and family role flexibility, and the social and economic conditions of African-Americans. These factors have had and continue to have an impact upon the lives of many African-Americans. This paper will give mental health professionals some insight into the unique issues and problems faced by African-Americans and offer some guidelines as to how to become more effective in counseling this population.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Terry Kottman


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1 PDF file (43 leaves)



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