Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Homosexuality has been in existence in many societies for many years. Ridicule and intolerance were generally expressed toward those who expressed their preference for or practice of it. Until recently, homosexuality has been considered almost everything from a mental illness to a pathological problem. As said by Kenneth Plummer (1982): Until the 197O 1 s, to talk of becoming a homosexual was to talk of etiological factors: chromosomes and heredity, strong mothers and and weak fathers, Oedipal failure and faulty conditioning--these, and many others, have been variously invoked as the cause for homosexuality. Changes in attitudes and beliefs regarding homosexuality have been slow in developing, yet are beginning to be seen in our society. Movement toward acceptance began strongly in 1973, when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its diagnostic category of mental disorders (Nurius, 1983).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

J. F. Kimball


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