Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


In the past two decades, attention has been focused on the topic of cross-cultural counseling. Cross-cultural counseling is defined by Sue (1981), as a counseling relationship in which the participants are different in terms of values, norms, roles, lifestyles, verbal, and nonverbal methods of communicating. Literature in the area of cross-cultural counseling has been a recent occurance in the counseling profession, with professional articles beginning to appear in the journals around the mid 196O 1 s. Before the mid 196O's the counseling profession showed little interest or concern toward the racial, ethnic or minority groups. However, as the journals point out there has been a number of societal changes which have taken place and affected the counseling profession. The current concern for counseling the culturally different came as result of the Civil Rights movement of the 196O 1 s. This movement of the 196O's caused America to take notice of minority groups. The preamble of the consitution was being challenged by all minority groups. Minorities were striving for their equal rights. There were movements to promote cultural pride in minority groups and minority individuals. Minority groups were realizing that for the most part they were all being 2 oppressed by the white anglo saxon protestant majority in America. The United States government has also been affected by the minority movements in the last decades. Because, of this impact there has been legislation such as the civil rights amendments passed in order to insure equal rights for all individuals regardless of race, sex or nationality. Cross-cultural counseling has emerged because of the daily impact that minorities are bearing on the American society. Majority and minority individuals were coming in contact with each other on the job, at school, church, sporting events, cultural events and daily interactions. The counseling profession has been placed in the position of needing to observe the issues of cross-cultural counseling.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

William Kline


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