Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


An elementary student in today's schools who is failing has two alternatives open to him, either be retained in the same grade for another year, or be socially promoted to the next grade in spite of apparent academic failure. Educators and parents have to make this decision and in most cases, both the process and effect of the decision have prompted considerable controversy. Proponents of retention argue that students who do not know the material at one grade level will be hopelessly frustrated if promoted to a higher grade level. Retention allows such students a year to catch up. Such students have a chance to succeed and feel good about themselves. If the student is immature, an extra year allows the student more time with other students of the same maturity level.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of School Administration and Personnel Services

First Advisor

Norman McCumsey


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