Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Education, Higher


Katherine Keough, chairwoman of the education department at Xavier University in Cincinnati is quoted in USA Today as saying, "It almost smacks of a Chinese mind, a black mind, a white mind, a female mind .... It suggests that brains are gender-specific or that knowledge is gender-specific" (Manning, 1992, p. 6A). Keough is referring to Ursuline College's use of Women's Ways of Knowing as the basis for its college core curriculum, fearing this may cause further division between men and women (Manning, 1992, p. 6A). Anne Marie Diedrich, O.S.U., Ph.D., president of Ursuline College, disagrees: We're not saying that ours is the only way for women, nor are we excluding men. We believe men and women alike can benefit from learning [ using] both [ competitive and co-operative] ways. This is an effort to add balance to an educational system that has neglected the female point of view for too long. (Ursuline College, n.d.) What should be the goal of education? Many educators and researchers believe a learning environment must be created that prepares students to become leaders in a democratic society. There is disagreement as to the best way to achieve this. Some believe that a competitive environment in which lecturing, note taking, memorizing, and test taking are emphasized works best. Others believe a learning community where "free spaces...enable people to learn a new self-respect, a deeper and more assertive group identification, public skills, and values in cooperative and civic virtue" must be 2 established (Belenky, 1996, p. 407). Mary Field Belenky (1996) also states that educators should "nurture the development of voice among people silenced at the margins of society" (p. 407).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Leadership and Postsecondary Education

First Advisor

Larry Keig

Second Advisor

Carolyn R. Bair


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