Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


High school teachers begin each year with a plethora of content standards to teach, however, instructing students how to learn is hardly ever considered. Metacognition and learning how to learn are not present in high school science content standards. The ability to self-regulate our knowledge is essential to assumptions about learning (Cubukcu, 2009). Students are expected to use metacognitive strategies, even if they do not have them. When students work through problems, it is common to expect them to go back and recheck their work. This is a form of metacognition and self-regulation. Asking students apply metacognition can help them learn both content knowledge and gain metacognitive skills (Schwartz et al., 2009). From professional experience, students work systemically through practice problems and assessments by treating each problem the same. High achieving students are expected to show confident judgment in their knowledge, yet explicit feedback on quality of the knowledge is often not given by teachers. How to improve judgment in knowledge is taught even less often. Students are unable to express what knowledge they already possess. They also struggle to articulate to what degree they believe this knowledge to be accurate (Gahan & GardnerMedwin, 2003; Gardner-Medwin, 1995).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Science Education Program

First Advisor

Kyle Gray

Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (vi, 70 pages)



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