Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Pakistan is one of the Islamic developing countries, and since its independence in 1947 the leaders and administrators of this country have adopted different constitutions to pave the way for modernization. President Ayub Khan of Pakistan not only tried to change the traditional thinking of his countrymen, but also toured the Middle Eastern Islamic countries to urge a reformist revival in Islam (Abbott, 1968).

Religion, technologicalization, and modernization are elements of a controversial issue which has been brought un and discussed among the religious functionaries and polity of Pakistan. The issue is, what should be the role of Islam in the technologicalization and modernization process of Pakistan? So far, no clear understanding of the issue has been reached. The two groups directly involved in the discussion of this issue are politicians and religious functionaries. Politicians blame religious functionaries for the slow modernization process, while religious functionaries hold responsible the masses of people and politicians for this because of their lack of understanding of religion (Abbott, 1968).

Religious functionaries include many men who never attended Islamic schools and did not have enough Islamic knowledge and yet are regarded as sources of religious knowledge (Abbott, 1968).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Department of Industrial Technology

First Advisor

M. Roger Betts


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Date Original


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