Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


The second National Assessment of Education Progress (Carpenter, et al., 1981) mathematics assessment covered content areas at four levels: lmowledge, skill, understanding, and application. The report suggested that educators had directed their instruction toward the knowledge and skills level but that instruction for understanding received less emphasis. Students at best had only a superficial understanding of mathematical concepts and processes. Evidence of this was apparent. As long as students were able to remember an algorithm they were successful. However, if part of the algorithm was forgotten or diversity in other ways was present they were not successful. Further, it was suggested that reliance on mastering rules led to "ignoring concomitant understanding."

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Len Froyen

Second Advisor

Edward Rathmell


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Date Original


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