Open Access Graduate Research Paper
The second National Assessment of Education Progress (Carpenter, et al., 1981) mathematics assessment covered content areas at four levels: lmowledge, skill, understanding, and application. The report suggested that educators had directed their instruction toward the knowledge and skills level but that instruction for understanding received less emphasis. Students at best had only a superficial understanding of mathematical concepts and processes. Evidence of this was apparent. As long as students were able to remember an algorithm they were successful. However, if part of the algorithm was forgotten or diversity in other ways was present they were not successful. Further, it was suggested that reliance on mastering rules led to "ignoring concomitant understanding."
Year of Submission
Master of Arts in Education
Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations
1 PDF file (55 leaves)
©1983 Carole Wilkinson
Wilkinson, Carole, "Teaching the written subtraction algorithm: Emphasizing language as the connecting link between manipulatives and processes" (1983). Graduate Research Papers. 3552.