Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


This project examined the use of three practices as means of developing graphophonic awareness in first-grade students. The three practices were: journal writing, in which students used invented spelling in their writing (Goodman, 1989}; phonics charts in which students listed and located words with specific phonemic elements (Routman, 1991}; and Making Words an activity in which students manipulated letters to form various words (Cunningham & Cunningham, 1992}. These practices were taught through the context of whole-word relationships and meaningful experiences. The specific phonemic elements targeted were the th, .s.b., and w digraphs, blends with s., 1, and r, and the s., .ad, and .ing, endings. Writing samples, running records, and anecdotal records were used as evaluative tools to monitor student progress. Results demonstrated student progress in the application of the specific phonemic elements being targeted. The practices of journal writing, phonics charts, and Making Words appear to be beneficial in developing phonemic awareness. Specifically, students exhibited the greatest gains in their use of applying the phonemic elements of the .sh and .ing, ending. However, students showed growth in their ability to represent all of the targeted digraphs, blends, and endings. This improvement was seen in their writing as well as their reading of words that contained these phonemic elements.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Deborah L. Tidwell


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