Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


The relationship of physical and psychosocial human behavior to child abuse is an issue that has always faced civilized societies. At one time it was believed that developmental needs came into play in a hierarchical sequence, the most basic being those necessary for survival, such as the need for food and water; and that only when these have been satisfied do the higher needs emerge, such as the need for a loving relationship. Now it is felt that all human needs are interrelated and interdependent in a subtle, complex and continuous way (Smith, 1978). These needs must be addressed from the beginning of life and continue to require fulfillment from infancy to adulthood. Of course, their relative importance changes during the different growth stages as do the ways in which the needs are met (Pringle, 1975).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Robert Krajewski

Second Advisor

Robert Frank


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Date Original


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1 PDF file (70 leaves)



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