Forum Theme 1
In this essay I will claim that one of the most significant factors explaining the high levels of domestic and public violence in New Zealand is the definition of masculinity that Pakeha (descendants of white colonial settlers) men have inherited and the risks and demands for men who attempt to achieve it. In order to comprehend the extreme stress which the Pakeha definition of masculinity places on men, we need to begin by understanding how culture-specific every definition of masculinity (and femininity) is. Next we need to review how this Pakeha definition developed as a result of the history of European settlers and settlements in this country, leading to a summary composite of “manliness” in Pakeha tradition. Finally, this essay will address some therapeutic methodologies which counselors might employ to support Pakeha men in their struggle toward a more holistic identity which refuses to take the traditional expectations of Pakeha masculinity at face value.
©2006 Philip Culbertson
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.
"Men's Quest for Wholeness: The Changing Counseling Needs of Paheka Males,"
UNIversitas: Journal of Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity: Vol. 2
, Article 11.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/universitas/vol2/iss2/11