The ciliates which live a commensal life on the gills and in the mantle cavities of mollusks include several species of peritrichs, but most of them belong to a suborder of holotrichs called Thigmotricha (Chatton and Lwoff, 1922). Very little work has been done on the geographical distribution and host-specificity of the ciliates of mollusks. Emphasis has been placed rather upon the taxonomic and morphological features.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
©1958 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Penn, James H.
"Studies on Ciliates from Mollusks of Iowa,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 65(74), 517-534.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol65/iss1/75