Document Type



The following account must be considered preliminary in the sense that it is based primarily upon herbarium research. During the summer months of 1952, the writer was employed as an instructor by the State University of Iowa and, while there, engaged in a study of the violets, using material from the Herbaria of the State University of Iowa, Iowa State College, and Grinnell College. Appreciation is expressed to these institutions for the use of their specimens. In addition, many thanks are due Dr. Robert T. Thorne and Dr. Robert L. Hulbary for their cooperation and helpfulness during the period of research. The most recent survey of Iowa violets is that of Newbro (1936). In this paper Miss Newbro recognized 19 species and one variety; in the present work only 14 species and one variety are recognized. Detailed descriptions and illustrations were considered unnecessary in this paper. For illustrations of the species and for synonymy, the reader is referred to Miss Newbro's paper. For complete descriptions of the species and variety, Fernald (1950) will serve in most cases. The present author disagrees in some instances with Newbro and Fernald regarding interpretation of morphological differences and affinities, and these disagreements are presented in the discussions of the species.

Publication Date


Journal Title

Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science





First Page


Last Page



©1953 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.



File Format




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.