The abnormal growths frequently found on plants and known as insect galls have led to much study of their origin and manner of development. These abnormal plant structures may vary from a simple fold-like gall on a leaf to a highly complex structure resembling a fruit. Insect galls are found on at least 80 families of American plants. Some twelve plant families account for a large percentage of the known galls. Insects produce galls on many species of plants. Practically every part of a plant such as roots, stem, twigs, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits may develop galls.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
©1942 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Carstensen, Gordon and Jaques, H. E.
"A Preliminary Study of the Insect Galls of Iowa,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 49(1), 525-527.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol49/iss1/102