Document Type



A large number of studies of differences between urban and rural groups have been made. Many have studied the intelligence and achievement of town and rural pupils. (1) However, relatively few have used modern standardized tests of personality and social attitudes. (2) Teachers have often been conscious of the fact that many rural pupils seem more retiring, shy, and ill-at-ease, especially during their early days in the new school. Others have said that they noticed no such differences, or that with all the 4-H work, better transportation and schools, and frequent contacts with town conditions, for rural people, differences such as formerly occurred had entirely disappeared. Others said that such differences, while possibly present, would not be such as to be discriminated by an ordinary standardized test. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken: (1) for the purpose of comparing quantitatively the personal discomforts and maladjustment felt by town and rural children; and (2) to ascertain whether standardized tests of personality now available indicated any differences. Several tests were studied, and the Bell Adjustment Inventory, which gives separate scores on Home, Health, Social and Emotional Adjustment, as well as a total score, was chosen as being most suitable. Ninth grade children seem to understand the test and to be interested in it. Its reliability is reported as .93. (3)

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Journal Title

Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science





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©1939 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.



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