Five million dollars is a conservative estimate of the annual loss incurred by the oat smut disease in Iowa. That this loss can be controlled is indicated by the following statements from farmers over the state of Iowa.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
©1916 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Krall, John A.
"The Formalin Treatment for Controlling Oat Smut,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 23(1), 593-620.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol23/iss1/66