Honors Program Theses


Open Access Honors Program Thesis

First Advisor

Kavita Dhanwada


Ruthenium compounds--Therapeutic use--Testing; Cancer--Chemotherapy;


Chemotherapy is a common method of cancer treatment, and cisplatin is a common anticancer compound used in chemotherapy. While effective, cisplatin is known to cause many side effects, and people can form resistance to it. Because of these problems, new chemotherapeutic compounds are needed. One compound that has shown anticancer properties, an ability to overcome resistance, and nontoxicity is ruthenium. Multiple mono-ruthenium compounds have been previously studied and were found to be effective. The current research project synthesized a diruthenium compound Cp2Ru2(bipy)2(DMSO)2 and exposed the compound to human liver cells (HepG2) to determine cytotoxicity. Increasing concentrations, between 5 and 50 μM, of the compound were tested, in addition to the solvent DMSO (control). Cytotoxicity effects were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. The results showed that Cp2Ru2(bipy)2(DMSO)2 produced significant decreases in cell growth at 10 μM concentrations and was more effective at the 24 hour time point when compared to cisplatin, however, 15 μM cisplatin was more effective at 48 and 72 hour time points. Additionally, there were solvent effects with DMSO at higher concentrations of the diruthenium compound (25 and 50 μM). At low concentrations, solvent did not show an effect.

Year of Submission



Department of Biology

University Honors Designation

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation University Honors

Date Original


Object Description

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