Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Listening--Study and teaching (Higher);


At the post secondary level, listening comprehension is one of the most needed and least taught of the communication skills. This study compares whether a direct teaching more effective than an indirect method for improving listening comprehension. Twenty-four secretarial students in two business communications classes were the subjects of the study. There were fifteen females in group 1 and eight females and one male in group 2. The Watson-Barker Listening Test was used to pre- and post-test subjects' listening comprehension.

Group 1 received listening instruction via a direct method; group 2 received instruction via an indirect method. T-test analysis of the pre- and post-test scores revealed no significant difference in either individual or group performance. Though not at a statistically significant level, two-thirds of the.participants did increase their individual comprehension. Listening research at the post secondary level must continue in order to find the most efficient methods to improve students' listening comprehension.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Lawrence L. Kavich


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Date Original


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