Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


One of the major challenges that faces teachers is to unlock the intellectual potential of each and every student. In the world today, people more and more need to be able to think critically. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize current literature relative to the teaching of higher order thinking skills as a process to be taught to middle level children. Also included in this paper are the results of a study conducted to test how often teachers of a middle school use higher level thinking questions during their class discussions. The six teachers selected for the survey are considered effective and positive teachers by the principal and staff of a school with a thirty-four percent free and reduced lunch rate. The social-economic status is a middle to low income population. The results of the survey indicate effective teachers are asking questions that introduce students to the higher levels of thinking. Recall questions were used for review of previous material and were a foundation for the next levels of questioning. Over fifty percent of the discussion time was spent on the three highest levels of questioning. The teachers asked questions that promoted more thinking by the students and challenged them to defend their opinions and answers.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Greg P. Stefanich


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Date Original


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1 PDF file (60 leaves)



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