Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


The essential nature of reading is the process of obtaining meaning. In order to process meaning, the reader must be able to perform the task of word identification-recognition efficiently. In the reading process, one has available various sources of information: grapho-phonic, semantic, and syntactic cues. Research on miscue analysis indicates that proficient readers are better able to use the three cue systems than less proficient readers. Hence, reading instruction should help students to be aware of and utilize the three cues. To enable beginning readers to use grapho-phonic, semantic, and syntactic cues, they must be provided with opportunities to read meaningful material. The Language Experience Approach (LEA), through student-dictation of personal experiences and thoughts, is one method which will provide reading material meaningful to the child. The effectiveness of the LEA in the development of word identification-recognition strategies is confirmed by the research. The sound/symbol relationships are not learned in isolation, but are acquired because they facilitate comprehension. An analytic approach is used in which known sight words the students have acquired are used to guide the students to discover the sound/symbol associations. Because the words are encountered in a contextual setting, the reader is provided with opportunities to utilize semantic and syntactic cues, as well as grapho-phonic cues. A limitation as to the LEA is that while basal readers provide teachers with curriculum guides which outline the instruction of the word attack skills, the LEA does not. The teacher must assume the responsibility of insuring that students learn the necessary word attack skills. A careful record-keeping system is vital. However, for both beginning readers and those experiencing difficulty, the LEA may provide the necessary motivation and successful reading experiences.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Ned Ratekin


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