Open Access Graduate Research Paper
Concern about effective instruction is nothing new. Confucius (c. 550-478 B.C.) said: 3 . When a superior man knows the causes which make instruction successful, and those which make it of no effect, he can become a teacher of others. Thus in his teaching, he leads and does not drag; he strengthens and does not discourage; he opens the way but does not conduct to the end without the learner's own efforts. Leading and not dragging produces harmony. Strengthening and not discouraging makes attainment easy. Opening the way and not conducting to the end makes the learner thoughtful. He who produces such harmony, easy attainment, and thoughtfulness may be pronounced a skillful teacher. (U.S. Office of Education, 1986, p.18)
Year of Submission
Master of Arts in Education
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
1 PDF file (30 leaves)
©1988 Susan Wulf Osvald
Osvald, Susan Wulf, "Elements of effective instruction: An analysis of five models" (1988). Graduate Research Papers. 3069.