Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Beginning in the post Civil War era, it seemed that African-Americans would be integrated into the social, political, and economic systems of the nation. The institution of slavery, however, had systematically denied a majority of these American citizens access to all but the most rudimentary forms of education (Boylan & White, 1987). In fact, many argue that the after effects of slavery continue to this day. African-American involvement in higher education was an arduous process requiring comprehensive legislative action. Blacks and Whites, dependent on each other mainly through the economic system, required an encompassing system so African-Americans would be educated and would aspire to become a part of society that would accommodate the two races (Bullock, 1967).

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Administration and Counseling

First Advisor

Michael D. Waggoner


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