Faculty Publications


First published in Energy, 254(A) e124161 (2022) published by Elsevier Ltd. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2022.124161

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Publication Version

Published Version


DCFC, Demand charge, EVSE, Multi-objective optimization, Plug-in electric vehicles, Workplace charging

Journal/Book/Conference Title





This study proposes a multi-objective optimization model to determine the optimal charging infrastructure for a transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at workplaces. The developed model considers all cost aspects of a workplace charging station, i.e., daily levelized electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure cost, PEV energy and demand charges. These single-objective functions are aggregated in a multi-objective optimization framework to find the Pareto optimal solutions. Smart charging strategies with interrupted and uninterrupted power profiles are proposed to maximize the use of EVSE units. The charging behavior model is developed based on collected workplace charging data. The model is tested with various scheduling policies to investigate their impact on the behaviors of EVSE types from different perspectives. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impacts of battery sizes and onboard charger ratings on cost behavior. It is shown that the proposed model can achieve up to 7.8% and 14.6% cost savings as compared to single-objective optimal models and the current charging practice, respectively. The unit cost is found to be more sensitive to scheduling policies than the charging strategies. It is also found that the flexibility ratio policy gives the best PEV scheduling with the lowest unit cost and the most efficient use of the grid assets.


Department of Applied Engineering and Technical Management

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1 PDF file

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UNI ScholarWorks, Rod Library, University of Northern Iowa

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©2022 The Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



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