Faculty Publications

Title

Status and Role of Formation Theory in Contemporary Archaeological Practice

Document Type

Article

Keywords

Assemblage, Formation, Material record, Middle-range theory

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Archaeological Research

Volume

6

Issue

4

First Page

299

Last Page

329

Abstract

Since Binford appropriated the term "middle-range theory," it has signified the process of reasoning from the extant material record to the cultural past. Merton's sociological concept of middle-range theory is relevant to archaeology, but does not mean what Binford denoted by it. More accurately, Binford's domain should be called "formation theory." By whatever name used, archaeologists differ greatly in our views of its role and status. Somehow, formation theory has come to be viewed as method but not theory, and as intrinsic to materialism, but irrelevant if not antithetical to other ontologies. Yet it is as critical to the contextual understanding of the past sought by many archaeologists today - a role that, among others, belies formation theory's marginal status in academic practice.

Original Publication Date

1-1-1998

DOI of published version

10.1007/BF02446082

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