Open Access Dissertation
Visual literacy; Schemas (Psychology);
The study investigated the effects of the use of a color code in graphic presentation and assessment of verbal material on the reader's immediate recall and delayed retention. Nine seventh-grade classes, containing a total of 132 students, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (a) color-coded graphic presentation with a color-coded graphic assessment, (b) color-coded graphic presentation with a black/white graphic assessment, (c) black-white graphic presentation with a color-coded graphic assessment, and (d) black/white graphic presentation with a black/white graphic assessment. The research design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial; the independent variables were the graphic presentation type (color-coded or black/white), the graphic assessment type (color-coded or black/white), and the time of testing (immediate recall and delayed retention). The dependent variable was achievement on assessments at immediate recall and delayed retention. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test all relevant interactions and main effects.
Based on the analysis, there was a significant three-way interaction among graphic presentation type x graphic assessment type x time of testing. Further analyses indicated a significant simple two-way interaction between presentation type x assessment type at the immediate recall and the absence of one at delayed retention. Two major implications can be drawn from these findings:
(1) At immediate recall, the important factor in enhancing performance appeared to be the match between graphic presentation and assessment types rather than the presence or absence of a color code. However, there was a slight overall advantage for the matched systematic color code in both graphic presentation and assessment.
(2) At delayed retention, the important factor in enhancing performance appeared to be the presence of a systematic color code in graphic presentation. The additional presence of a color code in assessment produced a slight advantage.
The knowledge gained from this study supports and extends our understanding of schema theory, graphics, and color. These findings should be noted and their implications assimilated by graphic designers, teachers, and students when preparing and using educational materials.
Year of Submission
Doctor of Education
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
Jeannie L. Steele
1 PDF file (vi, 105 pages)
©1991 Peggy Ann Posekany Pruisner
Pruisner, Peggy Ann Posekany, "The effects of the use of a color code in graphic presentation and assessment on the reader's immediate recall and delayed retention" (1991). Dissertations and Theses @ UNI. 834.