Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Timeout method; School discipline;


Current and historical trends of restraint and timeout use, particularly in school environments, were examined through a review of relevant literature. The use of these techniques has changed over time, and resulting injuries have increased the public’s awareness of their dangers. While some believe that these techniques provide a therapeutic benefit to individuals or are necessary to defuse crisis situations, others argue that the risk of physical and psychological harm usually outweighs any potential benefit. A lack of regulation and training standards has likely led to inconsistent procedures between states, districts, and school buildings. This variability has limited the ability of researchers to investigate nationwide trends or offer consistent recommendations for how to minimize risk. However, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of certain strategies such as proactive positive behavioral approaches and focused training. Court cases have also provided some guidelines for restraint, favoring parties that have demonstrated forethought and standard procedures. Since a number of significant injuries, including psychological trauma and death, have occurred as a result of physical interventions, providing guidelines for their use will be essential in promoting a safe and productive learning environment.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Specialist in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Robert Boody

Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (iii, 38 pages)



File Format


Included in

Education Commons