Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Cold--Physiological effect; Cold--Therapeutic use; Leg--Muscles--Effect of cold on; Academic theses;


Context: It seems that clinicians build ice water immersions differently, with one protocol factor, perturbation, being different. Perturbation may affect cooling efficacy of the immersion. Objective: Compare the cooling efficacy of 3 different ice water perturbation protocols on interface and muscle temperatures during Tx. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen active volunteers in accordance with university IRB. Interventions: During 2 sessions separated by 48 hours both legs were immersed independently in 38 L cylinder coolers filled to the fibular head. Independent variables will be perturbation [Immersion with no perturbation (ImmNP), Immersion with perturbation every 3 min. (Imm3P), and Immersion with continuous perturbation (ImmCP)], and Time (PreTx, and 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-min.during Tx). Main Outcome Measures: Calf interface (IF) and intramuscular [IM (1 cm + ½ skinfold thickness)] temperatures to the nearest 0.1 °C. Repeated measures ANOVAs and Tukey-Kramer MC tests were used. Alpha was set a priori at .05. Results: For IF tissues there was no Treatment in combination with Time interaction or Treatment main effect differences detected. As expected, Temperature changed over Time [(G-G) F5,55 = 780.94, P < .00001, 1-ß = 1.00]. For IM tissues there was no Treatment in combination with Time interaction or Treatment main effect differences detected as Temperature changed over Time [(G-G) F5,55 = 178.94, P < .00001, 1-ß = 1.00]. Conclusion: Regardless of the purpose, when using an ice water immersion to cool IF and IM (1 cm + ½ skinfold) tissues the clinician does not need to consider perturbation as a factor during the treatment of normal, uninjured and rested participants.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Science


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services

First Advisor

Jody B. Brucker

Second Advisor

Peter J. Neibert

Third Advisor

Todd A. Evans


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Date Original


Object Description

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