Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis




The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of selected pre-game meals in providing substrates, specifically free fatty acids and glucose, for energy production during a competitive event. The meals selected were a high carbohydrate meal consisting primarily of pancakes and syrup, a high fat/protein meal which consisted of steak and potatoes, the the third was Nutrament, a commercially available liquid meal. Subjects for the present study were 30 varsity athletes competing for the University of Northern Iowa.

Three blood samples were drawn from a forearm vein of each subject at times preceeding ingestion, one hour following ingestion, and 2.5 hours following ingestion of the experimental meal. Blood samples were analyzed for levels of glucose and triglycerides. Subjective written evaluations of the meals were obtained from each of the subjects following the day's competition.

Results of the present study indicated no significant differences between any of the treatment groups in substrate availability at the 2.5 hour sample. No significant change in any of the groups between the pre-meal and 2.5 hour sample was identified. Results of subjective evaluations tend to support both Hirata (1970) and Rose (1960), athletes were generally less likely to voluntarily choose Nutrament as their pre-event meal, without prior exposure to it.

Based on the results of this study, none of the three meals could be shown to provide significantly greater levels of either glucose or free fatty acids; however, several possible benefits of liquid pre-game meals into the pre-event diet are offered.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services

First Advisor

Larry D. Hensley

Second Advisor

Joanne Spaid

Third Advisor

Forrest Dolgener


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Date Original


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