Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Walking--Physiological aspects; Weight training for women--Physiological aspects;


The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic responses of college-age women to walking with hand weights (HW). The physiologic variables were: oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). There were 27 female volunteers from the University of Northern Iowa physical activity classes. The average age of the subjects was 20.9 (19-27) and the average weight was 60.6 Kg (45.5-86.4). A randomized block design was used for the testing conditions. The testing conditions were: walking without HW (Condition A), walking with HW with a normal arm swing (Condition B), and walking with HW with a vigorous arm swing (Condition C). The HW weighed 3 pounds (lbs.). The test protocol was discontinuous with a 1 minute (min) rest period between 5 min of exercise. The treadmill speed was kept at 4 mph and a 0% grade. The testing took place at the Motor Behavior Laboratory. Prior to testing the Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart, used for gas collection and analysis, was calibrated to ensure accuracy of the measurements. A one-way analysis of variance, from the SPSS program, was used to test for the differences of the means. A Tukey's Post Hoc Test was used to find which condition differed when a significant F was found a p < 0.05 was used for statistical significance. The results of the study indicated that walking with HW can significantly increase the female's physiologic responses to walking with HW. The range of arm motion was found to alter the physiologic responses of women to walking with HW. Women who do not want to jog/run, or are coronary artery diseased, hypertensive, or are orthopedically limited could use HW, weighing up to 3 lbs. and varying the arm motion, where walking is not of sufficient intensity.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services

First Advisor

Forrest Dolgener

Second Advisor

Jane E. Richards

Third Advisor

Larry D. Hensley


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Date Original


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