Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Backpacks; Children--Health and hygiene; Gait in humans;


The purpose of the study was to investigate the gait characteristics in young females while carrying five different weights of backpack. It was hypothesized that the gait patterns would be changed and the magnitude of the changes would rise with increasing load level.

Subjects were 24 girls aged 9-11 years. The backpacks weighed 0, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1 and 8.1 kg. The study utilized a Motion Analysis System. A force plate was fixed in the middle of the test site. Four high speed cameras were positioned on one side of the force plate. Each subject carried five different weights in sequence, and was required to walk naturally over the force plate. The statistical results were compiled by SPSS using a repeat measures MANOV A.

The results showed that the load of backpack carried had no effect on stride length or stride frequency. However, a slower walking velocity was found in higher level of load. Among the duration of different gait phases, only the stance duration was increased.

The degree of trunk forward tilt increased with increasing load of backpack. Conversely, the degree of trunk lateral tilt decreased.

Changes were found among different gait phases in hip angle. Nevertheless, the load caused no effect on knee and ankle angles. Similarly, the backpack loading mainly affected the angular velocities on hip.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services

First Advisor

Nancy Hamilton

Second Advisor

Kevin Finn

Third Advisor

Carol Phillips


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (89 leaves)



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