Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Counseling in elementary education; Parent-teacher relationships;


The purposes of this study were two fold: (a) to describe the interplay of the variables such as low progress, communication, instruction and help for a child, interventions, consultation services, meetings between the school and home, and peers as perceived by elementary children who have low progress in at least one academic subject, their parents, and their teachers; and (b) to describe roles and responsibilities of the teachers, parents, and children as they participated in pre-referral activities.

Nine subjects participated in this study to compose three triads; one student from fourth-grade, the mother, and teacher; one student from fifth-grade, the mother, and teacher; and one student from sixth-grade, the mother, and teacher; and one student from sixth-grade, the mother, and teacher. The students attended school in rural Iowa.

The participants were interviewed with questions composed by the researcher. Three interview forms existed because words had to be rephrased so the questions were understandable to the participants; teacher form, parent form, and child form. Patterns emerged across the triads from the individual responses. A consensus was seldom achieved in which the child, the parent, and the teacher similarly described the child's difficulty, the onset, the cause, expectations, etc. Communication was lacking within the triads. Communication role ambiguity existed between the teacher and mother about giving or receiving information concerning the child's performance at school. Pre-referral services such as systematic interventions, consultation services, and teacher assistance teams were seldom, if ever, used by teacher or parent.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Specialist in Education


Department of Educational Psychology, Foundations, and Leadership Studies


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Donald W. Schmits


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (269 pages)



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