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Open Access Thesis


The purpose of this study was to analyze the errors made by four year old Bilalian (Black) children to the stimuli which comprise the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) in order to generate possible explanations for the.children's preferred ("incorrect") responses in terms of language patterns and reasoning processes. Standardized administration procedures were disregarded; testing with each of the 21 children began with Plate 10 and proceeded until six "misses" occurred within eight consecutive responses. Each error, along with the test publishers' stipulated ("correct") response and a distractor, was queried in an attempt to ascertain the reason for the child's word-picture linkage. All testing was electronically recorded. Relevant categories that emerged from the data were: experiential indicators, perceptual indicators, symbolic substitutes, stipulated responses acquired through inquiry, and invalid indicators. Findings indicate that when queried about their "errors," the children expressed logical and well-grounded reasoning ability, and that use of the PPVT-R among four year old Bilalian children as an indicator of intelligence may be doubtful.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Specialist in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Donald W. Schmits

Second Advisor

John K. Smith

Third Advisor

Audrey L. Smith


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