Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Self-perception -- Testing; Iowa Tests of Educational Development; Motivation in education;


Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to self-concept (Marsh & Shavelson, 1985; Shavelson & Bolus, 1982). Learner self-concept is considered to be a specific dimension of general self-concept (Brookover & Gottlieb, 1964). Due to increased interest in learner self-concept, more academically focused self-concept measures, such as the Self-Concept As a Learner Scale (SCAL) (Waetjen, 1967), were developed. Previous studies conducted by Randall (1989), Schmidt (1990), and Wood (1991) established that learner self-concept and locus of control have construct independence (are uncorrelated). All three researchers used the Self-Concept As a Learner Scale (Waetjen, 1967) and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children (NSLOC) (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973). Wood (1991) also incorporated the Crandall Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire (IAR) (cited in Crandall, Katovsky, & Crandall, 1965), which contained more school-loaded items than the NSLOC. These three studies confirmed that the SCAL has construct independence--that the SCAL does indeed measure something different. The next problem, then, is to determine if the SCAL can contribute to the understanding of student academic performance as measured by cumulative grade point average or academic achievement tests. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree of the relationship between student grade point average, the SCAL, and the composite score on the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED) (1980). The study was designed to help the researcher determine if the information derived from the SCAL would contribute to the understanding of student performance as measured by cumulative grade point average. In addition, the researcher was interested in exploring if the SCAL would be a significant contributor to a regression equation which relates the ITED and the SCAL to cumulative grade point average. It was found that there is a correlation between the SCAL and cumulative grade point average. Although this relationship was relatively small (r = .32), it was found to be statistically significant. However, when looking at the contribution of the total variance when paired with the ITED in a regression equation, the SCAL contributed only 2% of the variance while the ITED contributed 37%. From this, it was determined that the SCAL has little to offer in the way of understanding student performance as measured by cumulative grade point average.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Specialist in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Donald W. Schmits

Second Advisor

Paul J. Porter

Third Advisor

Charles May


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to scholarworks@uni.edu and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL.

Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (64 leaves)



File Format


Included in

Education Commons