Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Open Access Thesis


Concrete -- Additives; Recycling (Waste, etc.); Factory and trade waste -- Recycling


Many metal industries in Iowa and throughout the United States produce a hone sludge, a product of the cutting and polishing metal work process. This sludge is listed by the EPA as a hazardous waste. The disposal of this sludge has become an enormous burden to the manufacturer in terms of time, storage, transportation, and disposal costs.

The purpose of this study is to determine the performance characteristics of using hone sludge (byproduct of the metal industry) as a partial substitute of fine aggregate (sand) in concrete. This would reduce the disposal cost of the sludge and reduce hazardous releases to the environment as well.

The amount of metal sludge added to the concrete in this study was increased by intervals of 5%, while decreasing the fine aggregate, to a maximum substitution of 15%. Before addition, the hone sludge was dried and granulated to be suitable for the concrete mixture. The material proportions were calculated and the concrete composite produced according to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) standards. Compression, split-tensile, and flexural tests were performed on the concrete samples as prescribed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.

The results reveal that substituting hone sludge metal for sand produces concrete that has significantly greater compression properties than regular concrete. Furthermore, the experimental samples resulting from the 5% and 15% substitution of metal demonstrated lower split-tensile and flexural strength. However, the differences among the experimental composites and the control samples are not significant.

The most ideal proportioning was 10% substitution of sludge that presented a compression strength significantly higher than that of the control samples, and a splitting-tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and modulus of elasticity higher than those of the control samples and those composites consisting of 5% and 15% substitution of sludge.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Industrial Technology

First Advisor

Mohammed Fahmy


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (88 pages)



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