primary schools; children; physical activity; video games; exercise; Brain Breaks®
Journal/Book/Conference Title Title
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students’ attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the “Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale”. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in ‘Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises’, F(1.32) = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children.
School of Kinesiology, Allied Health, and Human Services
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
UNI ScholarWorks, University of Northern Iowa, Rod Library
©2018 Agata Glapa, Joanna Grzesiak, Ida Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ming-Kai Chin, Christopher R. Edginton, Magdalena Mo Ching Mok, and Michal Bronikowski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Glapa, Agata; Grzesiak, Joanna; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Chin, Ming-Kai; Edginton, Christopher R.; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; and Bronikowski, Michal, "The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade" (2018). Faculty Publications. 9.