Faculty Publications

3D Printed Smart Mold for Sand Casting: Monitoring Binder Curing

Document Type



3D printed sand casting, additive manufacturing, binder jetting, curing

Journal/Book/Conference Title

International Journal of Metalcasting


The design freedom of 3D printing allows for new mold designs—not possible with traditional approaches—such as helical sprues and spatially varying lattice castings. However, research on the curing time of printed molds, including the aging, requires more exploration. This study describes the experiments of 3D printed specimens in which embedded environmental sensors were fully encapsulated into sand blocks during an interruption of the binder jetting process. Subsequently, over a 28-day duration, humidity, volatile organic compound (VOC) generation, temperature and barometric pressure were captured for three environmental treatments. Mechanical testing of standard test specimens subjected to the same conditions was conducted. The sand structures held in high (uncontrolled) humidity and at reduced temperature were statistically weaker than a third treatment based on the hypothesis that high humidity and/or low temperatures impede curing.


Metal Casting Center

Original Publication Date


DOI of published version