Faculty Publications

The Effect of Paternal Economic Hardship on Nonresident Father Involvement and Co-parenting Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Fathers

Jaimie L. O’Gara, University of Northern Iowa


The present study utilized structural equation modeling with secondary Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study data (N = 1,267) to examine the relations between paternal economic hardship, nonresident father involvement, and co-parenting. Findings showed that paternal economic hardship (Year 5) was associated with higher child-reported father–child closeness (p <.05), but lower father-reported co-parenting (p <.05), at Year 9. Higher mother-reported co-parenting (Year 9) was associated with increased mother-reported father involvement (p <.001) at Year 9. Findings underscore the importance of including multiple perspectives, and practical implications include the need for practitioners to foster healthy co-parenting relationships to concurrently increase nonresident father involvement among racially/ethnically diverse and low-income fathers.