Faculty Publications

Determination of climatologically suitable places in Türkiye for feedlot cattle production using the Comprehensive Climate Index model

Hayati Koknaroglu, Isparta University of Applied Sciences
John A. Harrington, Independent Scholar
Terry L. Mader, Mader Consulting LLC
Thomas B. Larsen, University of Northern Iowa


The purpose of this study was to determine climatologically suitable places to raise feedlot cattle in Türkiye. The Comprehensive Climate Index (CCI), a model that enables one to quantify beef cattle performance based on environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation) at any time in the year, was used to predict dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (FE) of feedlot cattle. Thirty years of daily average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values were obtained for 15 cities, namely, Antalya, Balikesir, Çorum, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Isparta, Izmir, Kayseri, Konya, Sivas, and Van. Measured daily solar radiation values were not available and values were calculated based on a formula that takes hemisphere, latitude, and day of the year into account. Since mostly dairy breed calves are placed into a feedlot in Türkiye, the Holstein option in the CCI model was chosen to calculate the maintenance energy requirement. Based on previous feedlot feeding studies conducted in Türkiye, it was assumed that calves would be placed on feed at 250 kg and be marketed at 520 kg, that the diet would have 2600 kcal/kg metabolic energy, and that DMI would be 2.31% of the body weight. Results indicate that cattle raised in Antalya (the hottest place) and Erzurum (the coldest place) had the lowest and highest DMI, respectively (P<0.05). Summer months depressed the DMI of cattle in hotter cities and winter months increased the DMI of cattle in colder cities (P<0.05). Feedlot cattle raised in hotter and colder regions of Türkiye had lower ADG than other places having a more temperate climate (P<0.05). In general, cattle raised in a hotter climate had better FE than those raised in a cold climate (P<0.05).