School built environment, gender, and student achievement in Pakistan
Education in Pakistan, Gender and education, Multigrade classrooms, School built environment, Student achievement, Water and sanitation in schools
International Journal of Educational Development
We investigate the relationship between school built environment factors including available water, toilet facilities, and electricity access, and Pakistani students’ achievement. Data from a representative sample of 72,843 students attending 5296 schools are analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings suggest that ceteris paribus, built environment factors have statistically significant effects on achievement. The effects of several of these factors are moderated by student gender such that female students’ achievement is more likely to be affected by the of lack of water and sanitation facilities while male students’ achievement is more likely to be affected by access to electricity. Implications of the findings regarding built environmental effects on educational achievement are discussed.
Center for Social and Behavioral Research
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
Khudadad, Nahida and Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin, "School built environment, gender, and student achievement in Pakistan" (2021). Faculty Publications. 5191.