Faculty Publications


Effect of low temperatures on charpy impact toughness of austempered ductile irons

Document Type



Ausferrite, Austempered ductile iron “ADI”, Austempering, Ferritic ductile iron, Pearlitic ductile iron, Retained austenite

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance





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Impact properties of standard American Society for Testing Materials “ASTM” grades of austempered ductile iron “ADI” were evaluated at subzero temperatures in unnotched and V-notched conditions and compared with ferritic and pearlitic grades of ductile irons “DIs”. It was determined that there is a decrease in impact toughness for all ADI grades when there is a decrease in content of retained austenite and a decrease in test temperature, from room temperature “RT” to -60°C. However, the difference in impact toughness values was not so noticeable for low retained austenite containing grade 5 ADI at both room and subzero temperatures as it was for ADI grade 1. Furthermore, the difference in impact toughness values of V-notched specimens of ADI grades 1 and 5 tested at -40°C was minimal. The impact behaviors of ADI grade 5 and ferritic DI were found to be more stable than those of ADI grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 and pearlitic DI when the testing temperature was decreased. The impact toughness of ferritic DI was higher than that of ADI grades 1 and 2 at both -40°C and -60°C. The impact properties of ADI grades 4 and 5 were found to be higher than that of pearlitic DI at both -40°C and -60°C. The scanning electron microscopy “SEM” study of fracture surfaces revealed mixed ductile and quasicleavage rupture morphology types in all ADI samples tested at both -40°C and -60°C. With decreasing content of retained austenite and ductility, the number of quasicleavage facets increased from ADI grade 1-5. It was also found that fracture morphology of ADI did not experience significant changes when the testing temperature decreased. Evaluation of the bending angle was used to support impact-testing data. Designers and users of ADI castings may use the data developed in this research as a reference.

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